Wöhler took a sample of ammonium cyanate (NH ), a waste product in the urine of mammals.
In other words, he had turned an inorganic material into a organic one, and he did so, as he observed, "without benefit of a kidney, a bladder, or a dog." It was almost as though he had created life.
The second allotrope of carbon is also crystalline in structure.
This is diamond, most familiar in the form of jewelry, but in fact widely applied for a number of other purposes.
In fact, an entire branch of chemistry is devoted to answering these theoretical questions, as well as to determining solutions to a host of other, more practical problems.