The empty spaces within an organism (spaces filled with liquid or gas during life) become filled with mineral-rich groundwater.Minerals precipitate from the groundwater, occupying the empty spaces.
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The dating of land surfaces has long posed problems for geomorphologists.
Relative methods (stratigraphic, geomorphic, topographic) are sound and convincing.
The development of radiometric dating techniques in the early 20th century allowed scientists to quantitatively measure the absolute ages of rocks and the fossils they host.
There are many processes that lead to fossilization, including permineralization, casts and molds, authigenic mineralization, replacement and recrystalization, adpression, carbonization, and bioimmuration.
A background in local and regional geology is especially important.