Unfortunately, extensive studies have not been performed to identify specific patients at risk and aid in the development of evidence-based clinical protocols for patients with neurologic pathology and developmental disabilities.Most reported experience refers to scattered case reports of specific syndromes (Butler et al.The purpose of this paper is to provide the pediatrician and pediatric subspecialist a better understanding on the neurologic effects of different sedative and analgesic medications so that rational and safe choices can be used in children with developmental disabilities and neurologic disorders without causing further “neurologic” compromise.
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USAReceived 2 December 2009; Revised 15 June 2010; Accepted 20 June 2010Academic Editor: Savithiri Ratnapalan Copyright © 2010 Todd J. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Sedation and analgesia performed by the pediatrician and pediatric subspecialists are becoming increasingly common for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in children with developmental disabilities and neurologic disorders (autism, epilepsy, stroke, obstructive hydrocephalus, traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy).
The overall objectives of this paper are (1) to provide an overview on recent studies that highlight the increased risk for respiratory complications following sedation and analgesia in children with developmental disabilities and neurologic disorders, (2) to provide a better understanding of sedatives and analgesic medications which are commonly used in children with developmental disabilities and neurologic disorders on the central nervous system.
With advances in health care, many children with developmental disabilities and neurologic disorders are living longer lives, and increasingly require diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.
has an excellent review of sedation complications related to many specific syndromes ).