By elucidating

We've differentiated all stablished i PSC lines from all subjects into cardiomyocyte using a modified protocol from that published by Palacek in PNAS 2011.

This protocol increased the yield of cardiomyocytes significantly to consistently greater than 70% beating cardiomyocytes.

Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young people, including trained athletes, and is the most common inherited heart defect.

There are markings as well that indicate various ways in which the performer must strike their instrument, which does lead to concern about instrument damage.

Penderecki’s is not the only work of its kind, though it was the first, and likely one of the most memorable of the whole sonorist genre, be it because of the deep emotional connection to the eponymous subject matter, or through the visceral effect it imparts upon its listeners, as it first did when it was still known as 8’37”.

We then tested the electrophysiological properties of i PSC-CMs from control and patients with HCM and found that both control and patient i PSC-CM display atrial, ventricular and nodal-like electrical waveforms by whole cell patch clamping.

However, by day 30, a large subfraction (~40%) of the HCM i PSC-CM exhibit arrhythmic waveforms including delayed after-depolarizations (DADs) compared with control (~5.1%).

We also found hypertrophic i PSC-CMs demonstrated other hallmarks of HCM including expression of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), elevation of β-myosin/α-myosin ratio, calcineurin activation, and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) as detected by immunostaining.